This article contains non-standard approach to understanding of heritage of JRRT, regarding the intravital published work "The Lord of the Rings", essentially new in comparison with the accepted versions about roots of "The Lord of the Rings" in the European folklore and is personal and original development of the author of article. The reprint, citing and a repost are resolved freely on condition of the indication of the reference to my website https://Excellentricks.ru. Article contains only the text with the minimum illustrations: if you want to look at rich graphic material, then in the bottom of article there is a reference to my video on her on my YouTube channel Excellentricks: The art of Analytics.
I apologize for my English - English at me is not native! The article is under translating now, so there are a lot of "Russian spirit"))
I offered parts of this material for the publication in various magazines of pseudo-scientific and more or less decent subject - since the end of the 90th of the 20th century, but they either didn't attract interest of editions or couldn't be published because of difficulties with financing. With the advent of YouTube (and my desire with him to experiment) - I had had an opportunity to state results of my researches of creativity of Tolkien in a format, convenient for perception and distribution. Reading pleasant to you!
Tolkien's secrets: secrets of The Lord of the Rings
You learn the mysteries of creation of "The Lord of the Rings(LOTR)":
What has inspired Tolkien on creation of LOTR and why he so long wrote him?
Where there are real prototypes of LOTR?
From where in the photo 19v there was a list of kings of Gondor?
What has connected Tolkien, Clive Lewis and "occultist" Alistair Crowley?
What riddles has Tolkien ciphered in names of heroes?
About a role in Tolkien's creativity Jews, Nazis, Africans and Hindus.
And also the little-known facts about LOTR, who such Tom Bombadil and whether, at last, Aragorn wore trousers!
For a start riddle: Isildur and Anarion: what words are? Any admirer of "The Lord of the Rings" will remember two sons of the founder of the Uniform Kingdom and the first Supreme King Lyudey of the West Elendil Vysoky at once. Isildur and Anarion were co-governors of the Southern Kingdom, one of two kingdoms founded in Middle-earth by refugees from Numenor. More attentive admirer, will remember that Isildur has succeeded to the throne of the Supreme King, being in the Northern Kingdom and some time ruled Northern and Southern Kingdoms alone. The northern Kingdom has existed about 2 000 years and has died in war with Angmar, and a part of his survivor of the population became the closed wandering people, Dúnedain of the North, "Pathfinders of the North" operated by descendants refused the Royal title leaders. The southern Kingdom has existed by one and a half times longer, about 3 000 years and only wonderfully hasn't been occupied by Sauron. And the reader who was interested in linguistic heritage of Tolkien will point to origin of names from the words "Moon" and "Sun", and will add that on the coat of arms of the House of Elendil the White Tree, Seven Stars and a high crown over them is represented.
All this truth, but … What if isildur and anarion, certainly in Latin writing, is an anagram? For example, such: "israil nor iudan" that is very similar to "Israel nor Judah" (Israel not Judea). And if among readers of "Lord of the Rings", there are fans of ancient history or at least the people reading the Bible – they will remember Saul, the first Tsar of the people of Israel, growth on the whole head of surpassing tribespeople, the founder of the uniform Israeli kingdom at once. The Drevne-bibleysky Israeli kingdom, has broken up to the Northern kingdom (Israel) and the Southern kingdom (Judea). At the same time, according to the Bible, the Northern Kingdom, though has inherited the name of the Uniform Kingdom, only 200 years have existed and it has been completely destroyed in war with Assyria, and his population has dissipated, having generated legends about "the lost knees Israel". The southern kingdom has existed by one and a half times longer – about 300 years up to capture by Babylon. And now, if to consider symbolics of refugees from Numenor: The tree and Seven stars sparks over him, represented on the Coat of arms of the House of Elendil (cm, for example, the picture on the authoritative tolkinistsky Wikipalantir resource (http://ru.lotr.wikia.com/)) and on the Menorah (menorah) on the Coat of arms of modern Israel, a conclusion about nonrandomness of such coincidence arises by itself.
It not the most interesting or important in my research. But if I managed to interest you, then further I will prefer to state the observations in the natural direction without effective overlaps forward and I will be on accruing to spread trumps on a table, having gradually reached a trump ace – the compliance of events found by me in considered the fantasy world of Middle-earth given modern to Tolkien of historical science.
I guarantee a rupture of a template of perception of works of Tolkien and "brain blast", and in exchange you receive answers to many, apparently, unsolvable, the riddles found by numerous researchers of heritage of Tolkien, admire skill with which he has placed for us hints in the Universe of "Lord of the Rings" and, the main thing, get chance to understand an original essence of works of Tolkien.
The main literary heritage by Tolkien consists of three independent versatile works: "Silmarillion", "Hobbit" and "Lord of the Rings" which now we perceive as a unit. It is known that Tolkien was quite accidentally untwisted with the simple children's book "Hobbit" which text except several names in general isn't connected with two others in any way and contains many discrepancies. For example, in the first edition of "Hobbit" the elf Elrond, calls the ancient swords found in a den of trolls "gnomy", meaning not dwarfs-dvorfov, but ancient elves smiths (as though Professor was inspired by Russian translations, where dvorfa always "gnomes"). And "Silmarillion", strongly fragmented collection which has grown from his teenage imaginations have been given to more or less system look and published only by his son, after the death of Professor, and, strictly speaking, has to be considered as the fanfic based on Tolkien's draft copies.
At the beginning of the 20th century the Internet hasn't been invented yet and a lot of things teenagers within the European culture invented the fantastic countries, drew cards. So, the fantasy country of Shvambraniya - a product of children's imaginations of the writer Lev Kassil on Jules Verne and Fenimore Cooper, described in story "Conduit and Shvambraniya" not the most, in my opinion, fascinating - and how many similar imaginations haven't been issued in the form of books was available to residents of the Soviet Union since the beginning of the 1930th to travel! As the illustration of the mechanism of formation of fantasy plots, the book Kassilya gives much for Tolkien's understanding. Kassil dreamed "Steam houses" and "Pioneers of the Wild West", and Tolkien "fairies (fairy) of the West" and "Old Testament", interweaving world around events into the stories. "tHE Lord of the Rings" the work multidimensional also reflects, somewhat, not only conscious plans of Tolkien, but also many elements, perhaps, appeared in LOTR without special intention, is reserved filtered from his children's imaginations or accidentally coincided with events real a measure (though, in my opinion, despite the subsequent comments of Professor, Tolkien in "Lord of the Rings" has no casual coincidence: everything is pedantically placed in the places).
Therefore, despite our desire, three books by Tolkien essentially different and absolutely independent on time, geography (even in directly Tolkinovsky sense) and to a format of the work and to consider them, as an unit absolutely fondly. Besides, if to be expressed figuratively, LOTR is unique diamond at which facet not only the garbage and diamond dust have been removed, but also it is a lot of small, but valuable, diamonds, however tolkinist try to understand beauty of diamond, putting to him the broken-away fragments and pottering about in production wastes, i.e. look for a certain new truth in some comments of Professor a post factum, scraps of draft copies and sketches of versions, letters, memoirs of his relatives and colleagues. Tolkien, judging by the published documents, tried to unite all the works in one Universe, but introduction of some changes when reprintings is farther and writing of multiple and ambiguous draft copies he hasn't promoted. Acquaintance to such fragments of stories and options of names to admirers brings true pleasure, but, obviously, all these pieces are rather a waste of literary work, and not a part of a certain literary plan on creation of multiple history of Middle-earth in the spirit of alternative realities of science-fiction works like "Coming of quantum cats" (The Coming of the Quantum Cats) of Frederik Paul in any way. Thus, and the more so hasn't finished everything that Tolkien hasn't published though had both time, and an opportunity, despite our general desire to learn still slightly more, isn't a part of the Universe of LOTR and, by and large, it has to be ignored.
We usually perceive the world of Middle-earth as the place inhabited by literary relatives of heroes of Old German and Scandinavian eposes identical to the European Middle Ages. Numerous fans, followers and Tolkien's imitators (in many respects from his giving) have developed and have fixed in public consciousness an image of high representatives of white race, successors of ancient tradition of the West who in an armor of the European knights, battle against the Absolute Evil and its servants from the East. For these ideas many researchers reproach Tolkien with anti-intellectual conservatism, up to the hidden promotion of the German racism and other "-isms". But this psevdosrednevekovoyevropeysky world has no relation to the world described in the Lord of the Rings. Tolkinist have the known meme "Aragorn's trousers" which means that Tolkien had no opportunity to describe all elements of the Universe (he hasn't written anywhere that Aragorn wore trousers), but as, actions happen in "the srednevekovoyevropeysky world" how tolkinist are convinced, he wore trousers. Also are mistaken. Most likely, Aragorn went without trousers. Because if attentively to analyze the novel proceeding from the text, but not from illustrations and conjectures, then actions happened not in conditional Europe, and … in Africa!
Now in the reader's head, most likely, a set of names and names of LOTR which are taken by Tolkien from the European epos will rush and, on popular belief, are the proof of a medieval evropeyskost of LOTR. These words are rags of the European camouflage grid thrown over the African elephant. Really, Tolkien regretted for lack in England of the epos and, it seems, sought to recreate "the lost legends". At the same time he was very devout Catholic, that is the adherent of the monotheist religion having the roots in ancient Judaism, and the corresponding religious outlook to almost opposite Scandinavian and German politeistichesky ideas. And with the epos Tolkien addresses without piety as medieval Christians with pagan pagan temples: for example, in "the Senior Edda", in "Speeches High" Dine and Dvalin are not just names, and names of "the Supreme god" at the different mythical people, or, at least names of deer from the center of the universe in "Grimnir's Speeches". And what at Tolkien? These are names of the dwarfs, in the Russian fantasy translated as "gnomes" - places described in works by Tolkien as extremely unpleasant people of the second plan, though in participating in fight against Sauron.
It if to otzerkalit Tolkien's approach, in the Bible would sound so: Jehovah and Sabaoth (names of "the Supreme god") together with the Jerusalem crowd, shouted "Hosanna" to Jesus on a donkey driving in city gate. However, Tolkien, despite the knowledge of the North European epos, used his elements absolutely utilitarianly, without caring about them "a true essence" - approximately as in too time Conan's author, Robert Howard, so randomly took names and names of the different countries and eras and mixed them in fancy cocktail: so the Cimmerian barbarian at him very quietly battles against the Zaporizhia Cossacks.
By the way, at Tolkien under walls Minas Tirita heroes battle with … Varangians (Variags of Khand) – Professor uses a tracing-paper from the Russian word "Varangian", instead of English - "Varangian". And in draft copies of "Hobbit" oboroten-Beorn in general "Medved" was called. No, the Europeanized names and place names shouldn't mislead. Being a philologist and the linguist Tolkien tremblingly I approached words and names, I thought out the whole languages and intelligent names even for the minor characters and if he has made a mix of sacral names of northern tradition, then, obviously, it was within realization of an author's plan: to hide the mystery of LOTR from ignorant crowd a veil from Nordic names.
What is interesting, Tolkien indirectly confirmed a possibility of localization of Gondor in Africa. The matter is that from 1635 to 1855 the capital of Ethiopia was in the city … Gonder! In this city located on the northern coast of the island Tana there is constructed by means of skillful overseas architects (Portuguese, not numenorets) an old stone fortress called by name the founder of the city - Fasil Ghebbi. And also medieval Christian and Judaic cult constructions, baths and a city wall with towers. Gonder has been plundered and burned by the next Islamist group at the end of the 19th century. Tolkien, when he was asked about interrelation Gondor/Gonder explained it absolutely casual, though interesting, with coincidence. Coincidence, of course, can be written off for the imaginations which have filtered from the childhood about adventures in Africa or to explain with unconscious reflection of newspaper messages as in 1941 the high command Mussolini's troops accommodated there (it is not a trick, Italy twice dullly interfered in Ethiopia).
But I am confused not only by coincidence of names Gondor/Gonder, but also some overlapping: there are many stone structures, fortress is called in honor of the founder, the name Fasil Ghebbi is conformable about Minas Tirith located on the opposite coast of the lake Tana the city of Bahar Dar in the English writing is similar to Barad-Dur, attack not of ordinary aggressors, but opposition of "good" and "evil" in a look Christians against Islamic fanatics. Perhaps, Tolkien, after all, has consciously reflected Gonder in Gondor, I don't believe that professor, on top form forces, itself being at war in World War I, has been so shipped in inventing of Gondor that has turned to information on Gonder a deaf ear. The name, I think, it has been picked up by Tolkien specially that through derivation of attention to disguise the turned map of Africa lying as we will be convinced below, at the heart of structure of Middle-earth. Nobody in senses will be, having found Gonder lying on a surface and sounding in news and having compared it with Gondor, to continue to dig in the African direction: well what author will derive inspiration in the history of Blacks of Ethiopia? So, casual coincidence – and all.
Also there is couple more of the small moments. Do you remember how Saruman has ground Gandalf at top, but not in a tower vault Ortkhank? And so, perhaps, it has been cast by events of the Ethiopian history when the founder of Gonder, Fasiledes, has ground the risen son … at mountain top! It was the exclusive way of an imprisonment of members of the imperial house of Ethiopia. And still, together with Fasiledes's remains in burial in the monastery there is a mummified body of his 7th summer son: than Merry or Pippin's not remains buried in a tomb of the Gondor kings on Rat Dinen? Well and in additives, in Ethiopia emperors-negusy from the ancient Solomonovy dynasty conducting the sort from bible Solomon, and on this basis violently stripped of power a dynasty of princes-governors to Zagva ruled. In my opinion, it is very similar to the concept of "return of the king Elessar" to a throne of Gondor, by the right of "descendant Isildur" with discharge from the power of a dynasty of deputies-governors. Anyway, it proves that at a development stage of the world of LOTR Tolkien could beat the image not standard by community of tolkinist of the expected return of the king Artur from the corresponding European legends, and scoop from the Ethiopian history more grandiose ideas of the come true return to the tsar's throne from Solomon's family. To Solomon Tolkien is obviously not indifferent: according to some researchers of heritage of Tolkien, Gollum asks Bilbo riddles about darkness and time from the text of the similar competition between bible Solomon and ancient Roman Saturn given in the ancient English poem "Solomon and Saturn".
There is practically no Europe also in sense of regional geography: really in "Lord of the Rings" of the place more or less similar to Europe, it is only elements of rural life of hobbits and a tavern "the Caracoling Pony". The climate is obviously non-European: to LOTR will mention certain abnormally cold region of Forodwaith with "yetis" in Appendix A and their polar-Eskimo attributes – a magic image existing at only hundred o'clock walking (hundred leagues) from a temperate climate of Scheer thanks to the remains of magic of Morgoth (we still will return to these people), there is small a mention of natural disaster – about the frozen river in Scheer and about snow and blizzards in mountains, that's all! Moreover, in February heroes swim by boats and go on the green woods. And at 30 o'clock walking from the capital of Gondor, the tribe of the suntanned painted forest savages Druedayn dressed in grass skirts and transferring information to distance by means of drums and who were obviously not meeting with the European winters lives. If still you haven't guessed, then at Tolkien near the capital of the ancient and haughty kingdom there lives and corresponds to stereotypes of the first half of the 20th century the reference tribe of Blacks in skirts from a grass and cabling on tomtoms. These savages don't bear any subject need, but have more valuable property - the author has implanted them frankly hinting at Africa and proximity of successors of Numenor and Africans.
We will try to look for other people of Middle-earth in Africa: now the speech at us will go about hobbits, about origin of their name there are many versions, but who are they such in fact? According to Tolkien, they are humanoids, low growth, but not dwarfs, have excellent skills in throwing of stones, archery and masking, live in round houses and have shaggy a foot of legs thanks to which they don't need footwear. From all these signs, shaggy a foot of legs draw most of all attention: and him, according to the known trick of conjurers distract from other signs. In Russian translation, usually, the absurdity and obvious artificiality shaggy is strongly maleficiated by a foot because of traditional translation "shaggy legs" instead of "shaggy a foot".
The most ingenuous part of readers for a clean coin perceives Tolkien's words as he, being in a trance from monotonous check of student's works and lack of money, it is unexpected on an empty leaf in itself has written about the hobbit sitting in a hole. More inquisitive, not trusting in the story about "the automatic letter", are satisfied with versions about the little man rabbit (HOmo raBBIT) or the brownie (Hobgoblin). By the way, it is ready to argue that you never connected earlier the known technology of "the automatic letter" popular with the English mediums of the beginning of the 20th century for obtaining "messages from spirits" with the story by Tolkien about the invention of the word "hobbit" and considered his history just the story by the writer about the creativity. And the most meticulous, on shagginess identify in the hobbit of the hero, perhaps first-ever cycle of a fantasy - the kiplingovsky rough legged elf Pak from "Puck of Pook’s Hill" (in the USSR instead of dissonant "Pak from the Bunch" fragments of this brilliant work were published, as "Fairy tales of Old England"). And on it calm down. And behind shaggy stupnyam don't see the people owning skills of primitive hunting, living in round houses and having small growth, but not dwarfs – namely the African Black pygmies. The dwelling of the African Black, stereotypic for the European, is a round house from parts of plants. And growth of the pygmy significantly concedes to the European, though not twice. Here it is interesting to note what the Greek word "pygmies" means "people of the size of a fist" and in some old fictional literature messages meet that pygmies there are twice less Europeans.
And why Tolkien used farfetched wool on ступнях, but not something else? Most likely, matter in the following: Tolkien with the hobbit Mr. Baggins, as well as his highly intellectual rival friend, Clive Lewis, with a faun of Mr. Tumnus definitely not accidentally does by conditionally central character a being with the legs covered with wool in a varying degree, at the same time Tolkien in addition refers to practical lack of footwear at hobbits in the winter, and Lewis was inspired on creation of Narnia by the image of the faun going on the snow-covered wood which has come to his mind. And names of heroes are conformable. This obvious consequence of their some joint discussion or exchange of the ideas. I will remind, they were very close – up to that Tolkien in 1930 has convinced Lewis again to become the Christian, and taking into account as it is considered to be, some, times considerable, Tolkien's envy to Lewis – it is probable, competitor companies have included in the line of products similar models with absolutely unimportant for development of a plot by characteristic signs of pilosis of the lower extremities, in some sense stating the rights for this obviously minor image. Though progress of Narnia and the Hobbit aren't obliged to hairy legs of their heroes at all. To discuss this subject I have no desire, especially, in my opinion, there were rather mutual claims: considering as I will show below, very slow manner of work of Tolkien and high speed and the seeming ease of writing of books by Lewis based on the multidimensional coded display of events of the real world and, as a result, it) was the generator of many ideas. Others similar Baggins / Tumnus parallel LOTR (especially the first part) and Chronicles of Narnia it seems: Aslan-Aragorn, 4 "small the person" - a symbol of ordinary British, weapon from the bearded wizard, the gnome and "the forest sorcerer", return of the king and a prophecy, etc. we will leave off-screen - about them better to read at professional historians of literature.
Generally, "shaggy a foot" it is a trick which Tolkien on the one hand has hidden pygmies, and with another I have given the hint for the thoughtful reader, thanks to his total absurd. In this context the easiest to assume that heroes and plots of LOTR are in many respects cast by echoes of children's imaginations of the standard child of the end of the 19th beginning of the 20th century about the African adventures: the pathfinder ranger travels to the companies of Black porters and conductors on coast of Limpopo in search of treasures. But in this case, easier doesn't mean more correct: though "the African trace", at least, the leader from the childhood – Tolkien was born and the first three years lived in South Africa – in his creativity, obviously, is present. Tolkien is a great writer: with him everything can't be so banal: also we will be helped with further investigation by monumental architecture and architecture.
For a start we will remember that several years prior to the publication of "Hobbit", the English female archeologist Gertrude Caton-Thompson,
ivestigated ruins of Great Zimbabwe – the stone city in South Africa built by ancestors of the Black people of Shona (she the first has begun to prove that ancestors of Blacks of Shona are builders of the stone city, atypical for Blacks, and not the so unknown left ancient people). She has published the work in 1931, further – in 1980, according to the name in Shona language "stone houses" and the whole country of Zimbabwe has received the name. Respectively the question of ancient builders is very politized there.
Characteristic of the structures of Great Zimbabwe which have reached us, very small, not higher than one and a half meters, doorways, very narrow passes between walls are, the remains of mines in which only very undersized people and steps which can climb unless the child could work, the general rotundity of forms of structures – all this has formed a basis to the version about existence in relative antiquity of a kind of the pygmies who have built stone houses and walls in Zimbabwe. In my opinion, it is also physical Shire and there sooner or later will be corresponding excursion routes. And the mysterious Tower Amon-Sul, perhaps, corresponds unclear to archeologists a tower without windows and doors from Great Zimbabwe (I remind that I only prove communication of events of LOTR with historical data of times of Tolkien, but I don't research the real world).
And so, the thrown ruins of ancient enormous structures, the remains of towers and roads, monumental sculptures meet at Tolkien constantly against the background of the narration and also there is a constant sending to the forgotten skill of ancient builders, for example, the tower Ortkhank constructed by numenorets walking plants-enty, before it couldn't even damage slightly the other strengthenings of fortress of Saruman which have razed to the ground. Which as it was emphasized by Tolkien, was the main wise man, but even he in the aspiration to improvement couldn't surpass construction art of ancient. Where will you find so majestic ruins and huge sculptures which are found Frodo even in Mordor in Europe? And here in Africa there is Egypt! Agree, the remains of ancient Roman aqueducts, statues and even the Colosseum to any comparison don't go with the Great Pyramid, the Sphinx and Valley of the Kings! It is possible to consider, of course, that remains of an ancient Roman civilization together with medieval castles rather fully correspond to LOTR background. But, Tolkien, in the style, exposes at all on a look huge confirmation of the Egyptian version: this is Argonat designating ancient border of Gondor, that is the Gate of Gondor and Pillars of Kings (Gates of Gondor, The Pillars of Kings), two huge statues near which the longest river of Middle-earth, Anduin, spreads to the lake Nan Hitoel and forms the Rauros falls, insuperable by boats, for which round by land on the west bank of Anduin the Northern Ladder is constructed.
All complex, it, unambiguously, Ancient Egyptian Elefantina – the city of the same name and the island near the first thresholds of Nile on which Egyptians had a fortress "the Open Gate" noting border of Egypt. On right (to east – please, remember) to the coast of Nile in Elefantin transported freights bypassing thresholds by land. The prototype of, actually, huge statues of Pillars of Argonat is, apparently, Memnon's Colossuses – two 18th meter statues which, though are not in Elefantin at all, but thanks to features of construction, at Neil's flood appear kind of in the lake that completely corresponds to an image of Pillars of Argonat with the lake at their basis.
Tolkien, besides, conscious absurd in the description of Pillars at the same time distracts attention from comparison to Egypt and confirms the Egyptian version: at the kings of Gondor, Isildur and Anarion represented in the form of huge statues in the right hands absolutely not royal нуменорские objects - axes (but not swords or scepters) and they more than strange "warn" open palms of the left hands raised up. Tolkien describes statues, resting on the natural wear of statues from time, but points to the raised hands – obviously not easy so: the raised hands will break off from statues first of all, axes – sign of dvorf or isterlng ("Easterlings with axes"), but not great kings – absolutely precisely, it is the next riddle hint of the author indicating Africa and Egypt.
Neil, as well as Anduin, the largest river flowing approximately along a meridian (from the South on the North – Neil, and Anduin from the North on the South). It will serve us as a reference point. In my opinion, it is obvious that Tolkien otzerkalit Africa and has received Middle-earth! The South has changed for the North, and the East on the West. Then Mordor is to the west from Neil, in the Sahara, and Gondor on the place of Ancient Egypt. Scheer appears in the homeland of Tolkien, in South Africa (inhabited by Europeans, with impregnations of Blacks – from here and descriptions of the European life in Scheer). Argonat-Elefantin's comparison at this inversion receives additional confirmation – slightly above I asked you to remember that in Elefantin thresholds bypassed on the right coast, as well as in Argonat, and after mental inversion the West/East these places coincide. Congolese swamps and the swamp Sudd are Sredizemskiye Dead Marshes, Rotten Swamps on the place of ancient fight in Dagorlada and boggy sites of Anduin – really sad and godforsaken places. Do all of you still believe that Tolkien was sincere in the subsequent explanations when he reported that the image of these swamps is cast by Fight on Somme, one of the most bloody pages of World War I?
What with Mordor, where mountains, a volcano and Sauron's eye? Really in the Sahara? Quite so: in the ancient time the Sahara was fertile edge, with green vegetation and the rivers … but everything has disappeared and there was a sand and rare oases. We will remember Brown Plains at Tolkien and it is comparable from one of versions of origin of the name of the desert from drevnearabsky "sakhr" — "red-brown". According to Tolkien, after destruction of a ring and Sauron's falling, all his undertakings have collapsed (in the famous film trilogy of army of Sauron it is banal have failed under the earth) it is possible to tell, have turned into dust and sand.
Tolkien rejected comparison of the Ring of Absolute power with an atomic bomb, but it only means that it didn't accept simplification "have thrown a ring into a volcano and everything has blown up": he didn't deny a possibility of a certain local apocalyptic phenomenon, much more large-scale, than bombing of paper lodges of Hiroshima.
Now will be absolutely hot: in the Sahara there is an enormous object seen from space which was considered as a shock crater on the place of falling of a large asteroid or a crater of an ancient supervolcano until recently. It is so-called "Structure Rishat" (Guel-Ayr-Rishat), as known as "the Eye of the Sahara"! Sauron's eye! And the version about a supervolcano whether it is an inspiration source for creation of a volcano by Tolkien Orodruin?
Frequenters of Wikipedia, can, criticizing my researches, to refer to what Tolkien couldn't know about "the Eye of the Sahara", 50 km in the diameter as this object has been open for NASA in photos from space in 1965, assimilating in it to the worst part of the "alternative historians" confident in impossibility of drawing up exact maps by our recent ancestors in a type of lack of satellite photographing and GPS. And all of you still doubt my version that Middle-earth is Africa? We go further!
We will look still for some objects of Gondor which are allocated with the affectation and we will try to find their prototype in the territory of Egypt. I don't know how to you, and even at the first reading of LOTR the island of Cair Andros on which directly nothing happens but only in cable style Tolkien reports how he at various times hardly was occupied by superior forces of enemies of Gondor and as then they from there with ease were always beaten out has seemed to me absolutely useless for a plot. In translation from language of elves, Tolkien explains his name with similarity of the island to the huge ship with a high nose.
I hope, you have already tried to compare Cair Andros with the Egyptian capital the city of Cairo? And the fact that the most expensive place in the center of Cairo is the island of Gezira having the ship form with a pointed nose I think, already strongly to surprise you it won't turn out.
And, for example, if you had sometime a rest in Egypt on beaches of the Mediterranean Sea, you, perhaps, residents Belqas served - it is their traditional type of occupations as the city is located in the delta of Nile, in only 30 km. from the sea. And now the name of the coast of Gondor Belfalas that means "the big beach" - a little strange for elfin language – in general won't surprise you.
It is possible to look for compliances of Egypt of different eras and Gondor for a long time, but, in my opinion, it doesn't make special sense to continue to list obvious comparisons like Stonewain Valley, the Kamenolomny Valley of Gondor, to Ancient Egyptian stone quarries after nearly 100% of coincidence of names and a relative arrangement of above-mentioned objects.
But for end of a subject with inversion of the map of Africa, I will point to umbarsky corsairs (The Corsairs of Umbar), conformable to the real Berber corsairs who have obviously come from children's imaginations of Tolkien – hi by him from Shvambraniya's pirates. Places of dislocation of umbarsky corsairs, in accuracy coincide with the Barbaric coast (The Barbary Coast) of North Africa at the inversion of the card which is carried out by us. I will notice that the term "Corsairs" used by Tolkin, means the private trader who has officially acquired the license for occupation of vessels of other state from the warring state. Tolkien not just uses the term the sea robber pirate, and directly points to seamen with kapersky certificates from the authorities, in addition confirming nonrandomness of coincidence of Umbar/Barbar. And besides, in LOTR to corsairs has put only to the pathfinder Aragorn – he incognito orders victorious raid in Umbar, he in the "true shape" declines army of the dead to occupation of vessels of corsairs - and though all this has led to defeat of forces of Mordor at Minas Tirita, but for some reason occurs "off-screen" the main events of LOTR (because at the detailed description, most likely, it would become too noticeable how the pathfinder or the traveler across Africa from children's imaginations battles against Berber corsairs).
Such repeated "coincidence" to the real world in general business card of works of Tolkien: even in the underfulfilled and kompilyativny "Silmarillion" coincidence of names doesn't seem to me casual, for example:
Vanyar — most important and noble of the families of elves, the first of the elves who have appeared in Middle-earth the comer in Valinor (the country called by name gods of Vala - "Arda's forces" - "Valar, Powers of Arda") where has moved further, the most part of elves, except for a small amount little-known Avari (Avari that means "refused"), not wished to leave the fatherland.
And Vanniyar - the numerous caste of the Tamil (radical) population living in the woods of the Southern India, which since the end of the 19th century was actively pursuing policy on recognition as кшатриев, but which has formalized the "noble" status of "soldiers governors" only in 1931. According to their Vanniyar version comes from Dravidian "val" - "force (strength)" and their caste ruled the Southern India before her gain by Aryan newcomers. A small part (about 10%) of Tamils profess the own branch of Hinduism called in English by Ayyavazhi which in Tamil sound … Ayyavazhi that in translation means "a way of the father".
For interest you can compare the Tamil alphabet and also the Indian alphabetic and syllabic letter of a Devanagari (which attempts of introduction instead of Tamil in the late fifties 20 century have caused rough protests in the south of India) and conformable to the last according to the name the elfin alphabet Tengvar.
Unlike similar to the North European runes Dayeron's alphabet, a conformable Devanagari and Tengvar obviously have considerable graphic similarity. Again here years of public relations vanniarov-kshatriyev coincide and years of establishment of vaniarov-elves, there is both there, and there "val" with sense "force", are present minor Avari, remained on the homeland fatherland and a minor "way of the father" of Ayyavazhi.
It is style of work of Tolkien: reflection of basic elements of events from ancient or modern history of the real world in LOTR Universe: he is a linguist and the philologist, Professor has directed all the creative to creation of fictional languages, and he had to borrow other surroundings of LOTR from everywhere and to mask laboriously (that doesn't belittle his merits of the author of one of the greatest literary works at all).
But we will return to the world of LOTR and we will in details look at the name of the primitive people of "yetis" who, generally for fear help Arnor's King. Tolkien calls them "the strange unfriendly people, the remains of people from the remote past" and gives them so strange and unclear, as from a position of fictional languages from his works, and for the English-speaking reader the name Lossoth, conformable to the Russian name of fish a salmon. And forest savages whom hunt as on animals, Tolkien calls in language of elves people, Druedayn, than obviously hints at their proximity to descendants of numenorets, Dunedayn (I don't consider probable communication of these ethnoses, as well as any investigation from texts of "Silmarillion" for the reasons specified at the beginning).
I emphasize, obvious Blacks at Tolkien are "эдайн", but not some derivative, like Sauron's servants of isterling, this nonrandom word! So also the eskimosopodobny people going in sledge can and living in snow houses needles bear some semantic loading? Why Tolkien gives them the name not derivative of the English salmon – salmon? For example, quite in his spirit would be to call them some Salmonlingami. If he strenuously emphasizes their attributes of northern natives why then uses the name Lossoth, unclear for the Englishman? There can be it and not an analog of Eskimos – very strongly Tolkien offers us this primitive image. And why it is extremely important to it to use the word Lossoth – it generates an obvious contradiction with the name of "the densely populated blossoming valleys" of the Southern Gondor - Lossarnach from where to Minas Tiritu there arrives the reinforcement? This obviously nonrandom word – Tolkien describes also the soldiers who have arrived from there, and the reasons of their small number. From this contradiction, usually, tolkinist leave, referring to the fact that the name Lossarnach donumenorsky and therefore obscure, and Lossoth comes from elfin lossyo — "snow" and in general Tolkien, for certain, has peed the pants, having lost the first letter because "in early draft copies" the southern lands Tolkien called Glossarnah. If to consider the ordinary reader is more attentive than the author of LOTR - the professional linguist and the pedant on a warehouse of character what was Tolkien, then it is possible to accept option with coincidence and a slip, but it, especially in the context of already found coincidence, it would be obviously precipitate. So Tolkien obviously with some purpose practically in a word called both very severe and cold northern regions, and the fertile blossoming South. Really it is the next riddle hint?
For the answer we will address one of methods of historical linguistics of the 19th century – the linguist Tolkien, it, obviously, was professionally close – namely to the method of linguistic paleontology allowing to define the ancestral home of the people, comparing names of animals and plants with areas of their dwelling. The "Argument of a salmon" called on distribution in languages of the praindoyevropeysky root designating a salmon was one of the wittiest though which isn't divided by most of modern scientists, finds. The corresponding words have found in languages of the people of the Baltics, Germany, in east Slavs and in Iceland, but haven't found in the southern Slavs, in Italy, Spain, etc. and therefore have localized the ancestral home of Indo-Europeans in Northern Europe.
And what, you ask? The matter is that Indo-Europeans it is the modern politically correct term, in 19v the German scientists who actively applied "An argument of a salmon" - these people called Indo-Germans. And "Indo-Germans with the ancestral home in Northern Europe" at the time of creation of LOTR unambiguously were called, - you know - whom, "Nordic Aryans". So the word "salmon" Salmon lying in the base of "the Nordic theory", and not used in English for designation of fish – is unambiguously applied by Tolkien to point that "the strange unfriendly people, the remains of people from the remote past", with conformable to a salmon the name, are not people, not "edain" the world of Middle-earth.
Africans: Blacks-Druedain and Egyptians-Dúnedain, it is "people" in the world of LOTR, and "since ancient times got used to Morgoth's cold weather" the Indo-Europeans of Lossoth who are dressed up in carnival Eskimo costumes don't. And accommodation of these people throughout the millennia in extreme conditions on some cape in some hundred hours of walking on foot from fertile Scheer are the next tolkinovsky masking by finishing to the point of absurdity. Tolkien an Aesopian language, by means of the people of Lossoth, denies a possibility of localization of Middle-earth in the evropopodobny world. Now it is clear to you that his disrespectful relation to names of gods from "the Scandinavian-German mythology" which in the 30th was pedalled by "Indo-Germans with the ancestral home in Northern Europe" isn't casual at all?
As you remember, we have begun with the assumption that Isildur and Anarion are slightly modified anagram of "Israil nor Judah". If, of course, in the last word, previously to add to "i" below a small flourish and to receive "j", and at "n" to extend a little a vertical stick and to receive "h". It is absolutely trivial slip / typo which is constantly found in modern books what to speak about ancient manuscripts. Transitions of "h" to "n" are possible also at distortions during the translating and transpositions: for example, in Russian (yes linguists) the word pharaoh will forgive me (sounding, as to "fero") skalkirovano in "Pharaoh" because of reading of not sounding "h" as "n".
By the way, Tolkien when shifted with Middle English to modern English the knightly poem of the 14th century "Sir Gawain and Zelyony Rytsar", definitely faced the similar phenomenon and hardly Professor who sometimes gave classes with students, having dressed up in an armor, would refuse to itself pleasure to use such trick. As we remember, LOTR is presented by Tolkin as extraction from ancient hand-written books of Middle-earth, and manuscripts without mistakes don't happen. (Once again I will remind that it is about the fantasy, but not historical work).
The version of existence of an anagram is confirmed by the form of the word "isildur" containing obvious traces of adjustment - this fact which is simply lying on a surface in an emphasis isn't seen even by very attentive readers. We will look on лунно / solar couples of names Minas Ithiel / Minas Anor, Itiliyen/Anoriyen, Isildur/Anarion. In the Russian writing there is no difference, and here in English! Minas Ithil/Minas Anor, Ithilien/Anorien, Isildur/Anarion. Isildur is written through "S" but not "TH". Tolkien has thought up two versions of this word – Moon/Ithil and with "TH" was more ancient (in the world of Middle-earth) the form which has passed into "S". It turns out funny: the king-numenorets Isildur is written in the new version, and his fortress in old! And through three thousand years, after Isildur called by Novaya Gazeta the version, heroes of LOTR hang around Itiliyen, the region with an ancient form of the name. Itiliyen it not single emergence of a word in Tolkien, and often mentioned place (unlike Anoriyen), there are important subject events. Tolkien obviously long and diligently selected such name and writing – he needed to coordinate Isildur from in other words his languages, a plot and toponymics. Tolkien has offered "TH" is compelled as with him it is impossible to make an anagram of Isildur and Anarion's names - Israil nor Iudan – similar on "Israel and/or Judea". Owing to such stretches Isildur, the eldest son of Elendil and the successor - "devoted to the Moon", and his younger brother Anarion - "the son of the Sun" – though on logic and tradition has to be on the contrary (if, of course, not to look for an Islamic trace in the form of a symbolical priority of "the defective Moon" - the Half moon over the Sun). Or this withdrawal from tradition is also the next instructions of Tolkien on a riddle hint? How in your opinion, could Tolkien who pedantically made tables of phases of the Moon to synchronize the description of the night sky in the different ends of Middle-earth, change without intention writing of a name "devoted to the Moon" the key character? By the way, for AnArion, these reasonings are right too, though are less effective: the initial word Sun-Anor is written through "O" but not "A", but the name of the brother Isildur is written through "A" because it is necessary for writing of iudAn.
"Israil nor Iudan": this anagram, I, proceeding from use of the nor form but not "no" – yes linguists and philologists will forgive me for illiteracy – I read how "the uniform state is divided and now neither Israel, nor Judea it are separately". However, understanding weak points of such treatment, I at once, at choice will offer two more: it can be not imitation of a slip, and a rebus - if to cut vertically "r", we will receive a stick for "n" and a flourish for "i" – then "Israil NO Judah". Or to cut "n" and to receive "Israil OR Judah". And the most boring option, it will be suitable for those who believe that Professor has received all coincidence accidentally and unconscious: I will offer without any typos and rebuses of "israil undirano" that in Shona language (yes, those, from Zimbabwe, near the birthplace of Tolkien) it means "izrait an interview" as the first dictionaries of Shona were developed by the English linguists in the 30th - 50khgg 20 centuries – that is in the professional environment surrounding Tolkien he could hear these words somewhere. Still I will add: I know that the state of Israel is written in English through "e", and through "i" - Israil – is written the Islamic death angel Izrail, but I on set of signs, after all, incline to the version of the Hebrew state. When I wrote these lines to my mind the treatment "has come I izrait an interview" as a conversation with the death angel, in the general a hint on danger (certainly, I don't consider her correct – just amusing moment). Anyway, I suggest you to think up other options of interpretation of an anagram, it is quite fascinating.
The idea to compare bible Northern and Southern Kingdoms, to tolkinovsky Northern and Southern kingdoms (in English all of them are written "Kindom") periodically arose among tolkinist. The benefit the biblical scene about the successor of the first tsar of Israel - the blond handsome David who has won the descendant of refaim (metises of fallen angels and people) and his sword beheaded the prostrate giant, is very similar to finishing by Isildur, by means of others sword, the fallen major Sauron. As far as to me I have prompted Google, further primitive comparison Israel = Arnor, Judea = Gondor and David = Isildur at anybody business hasn't gone neither in RuNet, nor on the English-language Internet. Generally, everything at sopostavlyalshchik comes down to the fact that Tolkien, perhaps, has taken a biblical scene, but so has processed it that in them there is nothing in common any more. I have found some more compliances, Saul = Elendil since both first governors and the highest in the people. In battle of the hero with the giant, in the Bible, it appears the brother (that is amusing, not David, but Goliath, by the name of Lakhmy – and he is won too) appears in another of places, and there is one more winner of the giant – a certain Elkhanan. Anarion has died because of a stone from Barad-Dur, Goliath – because of a stone from a sling. Generally that in the Bible that in LOTR there is something collective and similar around Goliath/Sauron. In the Bible the Northern Kingdom was called the same name, as the Uniform Kingdom of Israel (that is, verbally predominated), but has completely died. In LOTR the throne of the king of the United Kingdom was in the dead Nothern too.
10 knees Israel", including part of priests of Colin Levi distributed on all Uniform Kingdom were completely gone in the Bible together with the Northern kingdom ". Heads of religious processes, levits, the main people in ancient Israel – only, throughout centuries, kept full continuity of traditions, living is disseminated among other people. In LOTR together with the Northern kingdom have disappeared the majority дунэдайн, but part of them, living centuries among the other people, I have kept identity and continuity of heads. And, gradually we approach figures: terms of existence of kingdoms and kingdoms are highly correlated: everyone Southern has existed exactly one and a half times more Northern, and terms of life of the states in the Bible and LOTR differ exactly by 10 times! 200 and 300 years in the Bible and 2 000 and 3 000 in LOTR. Certainly, we take the term of life of Gondor in 3000 years, before reunion of the Kingdom by the King Elessar in LOTR final.
We will consider, perhaps, the most mysterious character of LOTR "Tom Bombadil": besides, he though is present in separate, even if published, books by Tolkien to calibrate the text of LOTR with third-party independent works by Professor essentially incorrectly. On him many copies are broken – usually agree that Tom – the embodiment of one of some highest spirits of the world of Middle-earth whose image is originally cast by a toy of children of Tolkien, tales of which adventures he told them. The name and even a part of story about Thomas at Tolkien existed long before emergence of LOTR, but it doesn't mean that during creation of LOTR Tolkien didn't begin to reinterpret him: at him in LOTR, consider, there are no others, similar on modern, names! Professor means it is realized I left a modern form of a bible name of one of Christ's apostles – Foma (Tom, Thomas), occurred from Aramaic "twin" (you suspect whose this is "twin" before whom powerlessly Ring of Absolute power – or I too far dig especially as Tolkien accurately denied the version that Tom is the Supreme deity, "The One"). Now it will be appropriate on minute to distract from Tom Bombadil and to tell about the one who such "The One". In LOTR the highest essence is anonymous therefore tolkinist scoop about her information in "Silmarillion" which, I will repeat, despite some crossings with LOTR, is the independent Universe. Tolkien tried to publish "Silmarillion" together with LOTR, but, fortunately, at him it hasn't turned out. Nevertheless, and in "Silmarillion", there are "traces" of Semitic mythology: yes, it is "Uniform" which has names - to Ayr and Iluvator. Any who was interested in Middle Eastern religions identifies the Supreme god of Semites in his names. In West Semitic (ugaritsky) mythology he is known how creator of the Universe and all live, the father of gods from by the name of El/Al/Il/Il. From the name "Ale" many names of the highest gods of other religions, for example, original "god" from the Genesis - Elohim, or all known Allah are educated. He completely corresponds to Phoenician Elu, with insignificant differences. Semitic to Il directly doesn't rule the world, having delegated powers to gods battling among themselves it is less, and itself sits on a throne and sometimes sends angels. Because of his passivity, he had few temples (by the way, in LOTR temples ischezayushche are rare: are mentioned only in the application and when finding by Elessar of new White Derev with the help angela-Gendalfa (words about an angel - from Tolkien's letters, I there is nothing). In translations of the Bible, to "Il" it is translated simply: "God".
We will return to Tom Bombadil's riddle. His official name on the sindarena - Iarvayn Ben-adar that in "translation" into English means "the oldest and not having the father". In fictional language of elves "adar" is "father", and knowing Tolkien's addiction to bible subject (besides, Professor participated in translation from Hebrew of fragments of the Bible) I think, he has used a traditional element of the Jewish religious name "ruf nomen" - "ben" that is meant by "the father's son", I think it more, than appropriate, considering that Tom responds on a bible name, wears a hat and a beard, in exactly as Orthodox Jews. Then Iarvayn Ben-adar means opposite: "the oldest son of the Father", that, obviously, corresponds much more to a being who is most senior and remembers "safe darkness when from the outside the Dark Lord hasn't come yet". "Iarwain Ben-adar, oldest and fatherless" - it a tongue twister is pronounced by Elrond that nobody has managed to think about "ruf nomen": Tolkien has once again switched attention of the reader in a riddle hint. I use the name "ruf nomen" into Yiddish, but not "shy Kadesh" in Hebrew as – – it is logical to language of gray edf to compare to a sindarin Yiddish, but not Hebrew which corresponds to "elfin Latin" more – to kvenye language as Tolkien, actually, repeatedly emphasized. Now you understand why Tolkien wrote many years LOTR? All key moments of LOTR with "a double mean"!
Objectivity for the sake of, I will offer couple more of options for supporters of the version according to which Tolkien applied somewhere the words which are earlier heard or thought up by him without special intention. For example, it is known that Tolkien used the code which is thought up by him to tell in letters on the movements to the wife during participation in World War I, it is possible and there is one of messages: the first word Iarwain Ben-adar is an anagram "I in a war", and Adar is the 12th lunar month according to the Jewish calendar (approximately from February 20 to March 24): that is "I in the war since March" - it is possible this phrase from the letter to the wife from the military camp where he was trained before sending at the beginning of summer of 1915 to France.
But the version that Tom - "the oldest son of the Father", finally confirms what he also sings! Bombadil almost constantly either sings, or speaks verses – and from them - with the help obvious sending of Tolkien to singing Aynuram, first children of "Uniform" Iluvator who have put the voices in uniform Music Aynur who has created the world of Middle-earth works wonders, whether it?
Right now appropriate will be to pay attention to religiousness and Tolkien's nationality, he was, "as all know", devout Catholic, the descendant in the area of the father of emigrants from Saxony. Before the 2nd World War, he had an opportunity to publish "Hobbit" in Hitlerite Germany. The corresponding negotiations were held, but, as a result, have decayed including because the surname of Professor could have idishsky origin and the authorities of Germany have requested from Tolkien confirmation of his "ariyskost". According to the widespread version, Tolkien has prepared the long and evasive answer, in sense that though he is, most likely, "non Jew", but he considers the ridiculous requirement to confirm "ariyskost" unacceptable and as he has explained to the publisher, doesn't want, even at the price of the edition of the book in Germany that though someone could think that Tolkien divides "absolutely harmful and unscientific racial doctrine". In the context of realities of that time (I will remind, for many British Hitler wasn't "the absolute evil" yet and I enjoyed popularity in Great Britain where up to 1940 there was a British Union of Fascists which was officially carrying out the anti-Semitic companies!) – it was the courageous act.
The matter is that Professor wasn't a Catholic "on the birth": he early was left without parents – the father has died when he was 2 years old, and mother – 12 years, from her he also has learned Catholicism which his mother, under oppression of adversities, has accepted several years prior to death instead of Anglicanism and here it isn't clear, roofing felts he actually was devout Catholic, roofing felts so he transformed melancholy on early to the left mother. On my belief, Tolkien, unambiguously, had Jewish roots though probably galakhichesky (i.e. judaizing and having strictly continuous chain of ancestors in the female line which is going back to ancient Jews) he also wasn't, but the certain spirit of Judaic culture, besides, on my belief going from family was present at him. Anyway, Tolkien by profession and to the interests is undoubtedly very close to great translators and experts on religious and philosophical works of Judaic culture.
It is interesting to notice that in Russia, the surname of Tolkien still with 70khgg the Soviet Union, most likely, because of accord with the Russified Jewish surnames, is constantly modified in more "foreign" - Tolkien. And "tracing-paper" from the English writing - "TolkiEn" - here at anything! By the way, though analogy is also not the proof, I suggest to pay attention to some similarity of Tolkien and other children's writer - Korney Ivanovich Chukovsky (the illegitimate son Emmanuil Solomonovich Levenson and his servant, Ekaterina Osipovna Korneychukova).
In this regard, it will also be rather interesting to pay attention to the next moment: at community of the Russian tolkinist and roleplayers there is surprisingly a large number of the participants having the Jewish origin or carrying itself to carriers of the Jewish culture that is a little unexpected, taking into account the "conventional" opinion, about the "North European" and even "Aryan and Nordic" bases of creativity of Tolkien. Within my version of understanding of LOTR, the special attractiveness of his creativity for persons in a varying degree involved in spirit of Judaic culture becomes clear: LOTR is through impregnated not with so Christian (new treasured), but Judaic (antiquated) plots and images. I.e. antiquated plots at some deep level are still very attractive for many people now, but to a game in "David wins against Goliath" her Isildur Wins Against Sauron version modernized by Tolkin as Professor between lines transmits bible spirit much more, than a dry religious sermon is preferred. This mechanism can be calibrated with examples from modern Russian Orthodox Church when a large number of her priests and parishioners have the Jewish origin and despite the expressed Semitic appearance and an obvious initial participle to initial religion – – prefer to Judaism his simplified version – Christianity. The same way fantasy authors, a striking example - Robert Howard, fill thirst for ancient history at people about all the known names of the ancient countries and the people and filling uninteresting to the mass reader dry pages of textbooks of history with fascinating and emotional contents (which usually doesn't correspond in anything to the facts of historical science).
It, by the way, also is, in my opinion, the main reason of emergence and success of a fantasy as literary direction: a fantasy, in a fascinating and original manner retelling all the known images, has taken the place of dry dogmatic religious and historical works.
At last, we will look attentively at a key figure of LOTR – Aragorn, I think, special objections of the main plot of LOTR, namely process of return of the king to a throne at anybody doesn't arise (any miracles of elves and magicians-istari or a burden of hobbits on the way to Mordor don't pull on more than original jewelry of the central plot: if to remove return of the king and revival of the kingdom, we will receive though the quite good, but usual fairy tale: in which Frodo, in fact as Buratino, without special harm for the general plot can bring with the same dramatic nature instead of the One Ring the Gold Key to Piero-Legolas and Artemona-Boromir's companies). As we already observed earlier, at Tolkien, according to his profession of the linguist, riddles hints are mainly concealed in names and names – we will try to estimate names of Aragorn in this light. Here them to place the main thing in the correct order: at Aragorn it is several names, nicknames and titles though, generally Aragorn appears in LOTR under this name.
Estel (Estel [ˈestel]) — "hope" - a children's name of Aragorn under which he to twenty-year age was "hidden" at elves in Rivendella – that enemies haven't guessed that he is successor Isildura.
Actually, Aragorn – on its value many copies are broken, Tolkien even made special explanations, but, despite it, there is no definite and consistent answer. Generally, being guided by the next scraps of draft copies of Professor, the name "Aragorn" was usually translated as "royal valor" ("Kingly Valour") until in 2007 have replaced on "the esteemed king" ("Revered King"), after the publication of the manuscript of the 1950th "Words, Phrases & Passages in The Lord of the Rings" – both options are quite worthy to be rather official title of the hereditary leader of pathfinders among his tribespeople northerners, than his personal name.
Sometimes Tolkien calls him on a name middle name: Aragorn Arathorn's (Arathorn) son. Arathorn means a name "a royal eagle" or "king eagle". I.e. one more name of Aragorn can be considered "the son of a regal eagle". In general Professor noted that interpretation of names of the artedaynsky line is impossible (in terms of Professor it sounded as it is "difficult") since he, according to him, hasn't thought up for this purpose in LOTR of enough information.
Strider - on sense is the closest to the ignoble word "pedestrian" and therefore in the Russian versions of LOTR sounding as Kolobrod, Brodyazhnik and even "Wanderer", etc.
Dúnadan – "the western person" i.e. the descendant of the "Right" numenorets who have kept the friendly relations with elves.
Thorongil ([θoˈro ŋɡ il]) — it means a name "Star Oryol" or, literally, Orlozvezd, under this pseudonym Aragorn, hiding the origin, ordered successful raid of troops of Gondor against Umbar's corsairs at the time of Ektelion's government - the penultimate Deputy of Gondor.
Elessar ( [eˈlesːar]) — is translated from "elfin Latin" – kvenye as "An elfin stone". He has received this name under which Aragorn has returned on a throne from empress Galadriel together with the magic stone of the same name. Edhelharn [eˈðel.harn] – his translation on синдарин.
Envinyatar — Renewer — so in an elfin way has told Aragorn the name or a title, speaking about the forthcoming shift of a name at ascension on a throne. It is considered that it designates updating a hope of dunedain on "association of kingdoms and revival of the royalty" and, obviously, there corresponds to his children's name Estel.
Telkontar ([telˈkontar]) is the nickname "Strider" translated on elfin. Telkontar Aragorn has named the royal house after revival of the United Kingdom and restoration of the monarchy.
If to remove nicknames, pseudonyms and synonyms there are five names: Elessar Aragorn Arathorn Envinyatar Telkontar's son.
The option with five names is confirmed so-called. "the letter of the King" - Aragorn's letter which isn't included Tolkien in the epilog of LOTR to Sam. There names of the King of Gondor and all West are written down as "Elessar Telcontar: Aragorn Arathornion Edhelharn". Tolkien hasn't included the letter in LOTR therefore it, obviously isn't finished: the list of names begins and comes to an end with synonyms in two different elfin languages: "an elfin stone - Elessar" and "an elfin stone – Edelkhan": here the last obviously superfluous.
It is incorrect to change a sequence from "the Letter of the King" therefore most likely, the titulatura will be approximately such:
Elessar Telkontar Aragorn Arathorn Envinyatar's son, the King of the Reunited Kingdom.
Five names of the king, taking into account the above-proved localization of Gondor in Ancient Egypt, it is logical to compare with the full name of Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs consisting of five names titles reflecting the most important events of government of the Pharaoh and his divine (and not only) qualities. Title names at the Pharaoh could change depending on the taken place significant events. These names titles:
Horovo a name – the most ancient part of a title, connected the Pharaoh with Falcon-god Hores. In him to a name of Hores the characteristic of the Pharaoh illustrating that a part of god which was most shown in the Pharaoh increased.
The name on nbty ("nebt") – enters "the consecrated name" on unifying functions of the Pharaoh – the name includes Both Empresses ("two ladies") Top and Nizhny Novgorod of Egypt, "who inherits or we love to both Empresses";
Gold name - "Gold with the name", "Gold Chorus", "the Gold Sun" it was usually written, starting with the image of Chorus, astride the hieroglyph meaning gold. Concerning "a gold name" at Egyptologists it is a lot of contradictory versions, from all titles the foggiest, can symbolize immortality or divine essence of the Pharaoh;
The throne title, usually began with nsw-bity ("I bear-biti") "The governor integrated both parts of Egypt" – the name of the Pharaoh following him, usually included god Ra's mention.
Personal name of the Pharaoh before which the sign of "divine" origin "Son Ra" was usually specified.
Horeses name, the most ancient and connected with a divine bird falcon is, most likely, Arathornion, Arathorn's son, "the son of an imperial eagle". Eagle – a divine bird of the main god shaft Manwe from Legendarium Tolkien, on the status corresponds to the status a divine bird falcon of Ancient Egypt. It should be noted that for the same reasons it is possible to use "a star eagle" of Torongil instead of "The son of a regal eagle", under this name Aragorn long before War of the Ring has for the first time appeared in Gondor (literally the most "ancient" emergence) – though this option, in my opinion, is less convincing.
Connected with Two Empresses of a nebta it is Elessar, a name title of Aragorn which he has received from "a morning star of elves" - Empresses Galadriel and under which I have married "an evening star" of Arwen. The name of Arwen consists of ar – "royal" and wen – "maiden" that is often inexact translate as "queen" i.e. the king's spouse though it is rather "the regal maiden, the empress", irrespectively existence of the marriage union with the monarch.
To a concept of "a throne name", in fact, but not on the literal translation probably most closer there is a word Telkontar ("wanderer") connected with the royalty – a name of the ruling Royal House founded by Aragorn. In Ancient Egypt god whose name is translated as "wanderer" ("traveller") is god of the Moon Honsu (Khonsu). And Strider Aragorn is a successor "devoted to the Moon" Isildura.
The personal name, Envinyatar is "obnovitel", it, most likely Apis (Hapis) called by "an obnovitel of life" in a stump the Bird in Memphis. Apis was the Pharaoh's symbol. According to Plutarch and Strabo, I was considered as a lunar bull - Osiris's symbol or Osiris.
Addressed to Aragorn there is not clearest of a titulatura of Pharaohs "a gold name".
Here we will be helped by the most powerful King of Numenor, Ar-Farazon of Gold (Ar-Pharazôn the Golden). Ar-Pharazôn in RuNet mistakenly translate as "the Son Sveta"" though, I will notice, Tolkien directly specifies in the Appendix E to LOTR on origin of Ar-Pharazon from "pharaz" cutting hearing numenorian (aduniac) — "gold" ("the Noble Son of The Light" is the translation of his elfin name - Tar-Kalion). Such distortion of the translation is quite natural because "The gold son of light" is much more logical, than ridiculous "royal gold gold", but as we were already repeatedly convinced, Tolkien doesn't need corrections since not casually leads up to the point of absurdity the key moments – and it gives us riddles hints. In the context of our version about an Ancient Egyptian trace in LOTR, Pharazôn it, obviously, Pharaoh – slightly changed (as in Isildur and Anarion's anagram) the word "Pharaoh", here Russian-speaking readers have advantage in perception before Anglophones for whom the Pharaoh sounds as to "fero". Gold is a metal of Pharaohs and solar god R, the name of R usually makes a part of a title of Pharaohs who were considered as the embodiments or R's sons.
The most known Egyptian hieroglyph is the logogram "a point in a circle", designating, including, the Sun. (N5 on the standard way of classification of hieroglyphs entered after the publication in 1927 of "The Egyptian grammar" of the English Oxford Egyptologist and the linguist — Alan Gardiner). Egyptians, as we know, wrote from right to left that is if to try to read "a circle with a point" on modern manners, at the left on the right, then we will receive "ar". Certainly, at all desire "the circle with a point" in Egyptian can't be read upside-down (at least because of its symmetry).
Generally, powerful Ar-Farazon gives us understanding that the king at Tolkien is the Pharaoh, and "are" in names of kings is "Ra" from a title of Pharaohs. Tolkien in LOTR pointed to the Ar/Ara prefix as on attribute of the Supreme power, after the publication LOTR he dopridumat that "ar" is a form from ancient "aran" - that precisely nobody has connected kings with Pharaohs. God Ra was represented with the head of a falcon, with the head of a falcon also other god – Gore was represented. The syncretic cult of god who is at the same time both Ra by Gore also in has been extended Ancient Egypt, his name was Ra-Horakhti.
You will laugh, but the grotesque Renaissance of this cult has occurred in the first half of the 20th century, thanks to the famous poet, the occultist and "the black magician" Aleister Crowley who has included Ra-Horakhti in the doctrine Telema.
At the heart of Crowley's doctrine – the "Book of the Law" (Liber AL vel Legis) written to them in 1904 in the Egyptian Cairo in 3 days as a revelation from a certain superessence, but finally finished only in 1925 by Crowley has entered god under the name of Ra-Hoor-Khuit in the doctrine Telema, based on images on Ancient Egyptian "Stella of Revelation". By the way, Alistair Crowley positioning myself as ardent anti-Christian and "most immoral person" I studied in due time at one of the best British schools boards Malvern College at which in two decades he will study... Clive Lewis who has also departed from Christianity and was fond of occultism (Lewis has returned to a bosom of church only in 20 years, thanks to Tolkien's influence).
I will notice that interpretation of LOTR as allegories of rather widely known "magic" opposition of members of an occult Award of Golden Dawn of Crowley and Maters meet at some modern "telemits" (followers of the doctrine of Alistair Crowley) (this скучнейшею I to retell history of dismantling of the freaks who were without results "sending" at each other demons I have no desire). For example, you can read about it in English according to the reference "Occultism at Tolkien and Lewis", only keep in mind that the specified and quite ambiguous, but quite interesting text is compilation on the website about "the world plot of Illuminates" and secret societies and can be at any time added by owners of the website even more controversial information (I have no relation to her if someone else hasn't understood: besides, it is very difficult to me to perceive without laughter the website on which in the 21st century the modern "illuminates" invented by the antiklerialny MEGAtroll of the 19th century Leo Taksil for mockery over Catholic obscurantists are seriously discussed for what, he, by the way, has been anathematized). The specified text is interesting ONLY as the objective certificate of some associations between Tolkien, Lewis and Crowley's works at the persons involved to European "occultism" that it in addition confirms my conclusions.
In my opinion, Tolkien's perception as "occult writer" it is incorrect, despite the decorative elements of "hermetic tradition" which are present at his creativity.
The most interesting of "Tolkien's occult" researches is a description of strong similarity of the gate of the underground kingdom of Gnomes drawn with Tolkin - Moria - with the Royal Arch of masons (details according to the reference "Symbolism in the Lord of the Rings").
Generally, in the presence as a part of the most known of the literary and debatable associations created by Tolkin - "Inklings" - the writer mystic Charles Williams who was earlier the member of the sunk into oblivion Golden Dawn shouldn't be surprised to emergence in creativity of "inkling" of echoes of works of the most known ex-of "zolotozarist" of Alistair Crowley. The question remains only in the nature of interchange by the ideas and extents of their manifestation in works of "inkling".
Looking for traces of secret societies in literature on external signs, not plunging into an essence, we can "narazgadyvat" so many secrets that even "the Gold Key" from a door in the Father Carlo's closet, we will consider a Masonic symbol of knowledge of mysteries of life of hands of Buratino undergoing dedication in "free bricklayers"... And here, by the way and a Masonic "Gold Key":
And the door behind a canvas in the Father Carlo's closet, obviously, is the "Royal Arch" mentioned above. I pay your attention to strong crossing of images of the Gold Key of Buratino opening a secret door and the "Gate of Moria" opening after the decision Gandalf of a riddle - with the elfin word "friend" - "Mellon" which is also... "a gold key"! Compare the words Mellon ("friend") and Mellyrn ("Gold trees") - plural from Mallorn formed from sindarinsky mal (gold)! Both of these images which have appeared in the books written by two writers approximately at the same time are obviously cast Masonic by "A gold key" to the mysteries of life and "the Royal Arch".
Search of the hidden sense and traces of secret societies in books is a fertile field for speculation of "alternatives" and "conspiracy theorists", but I prefer to remain at skeptical and rational positions and I don't perceive LOTR as the occult and esoteric work of the European hermetic tradition. At the same time Tolkien openly has an opposition subject with some "Nazi occultists" at LOTR, but is exclusive as a literary, but not mystical element (Tolkien against Hitler is more detailed in my article: traces of "Nazi mystics" in Middle-earth).
Due to the questions arriving to me, in addition I report: I don't consider Buratino mystically the coded work, and his author Alexey Tolstoy - the "occult" writer. In spite of the fact that at A. Tolstoy's creativity there are unambiguous traces of the European mysticism: for example, the teosofsky ideas in Aelita and adventures in the Russian remote place of the most famous mystic adventurer in the story "Count Cagliostro": the author uses fashionable or even, perhaps, the "esoteric" images concerning him at very primitive and mass level of understanding, and without carrying out a certain secret mission from some local Golden Dawn, approximately also in any way as he describes interplanetary flights, without being a participant of "Society of studying of interplanetary messages" or others the forerunner ГИРДа at all (group of studying of jet propulsion - "the Soviet space" has grown further from her). Writers, even such ingenious as Alexey Tolstoy and John Tolkien, aren't universal experts or participants of events of the books: it is obvious that they borrow the ideas, generally at the colleagues including an "occult" genre. Once again: the general images in different books don't prove communication of their authors or existence of any mystical interrelations - it, most likely, testifies to an inspiration source in the form of some rather widespread vulgar and mystical would-be-literary work available to both authors.
In the English tradition the name of Gore is said as Horus, and writing is taken from Latin (the name Hor + the termination indicating a masculine gender – us). Therefore here Russian-speaking readers of LOTR have advantage before Anglophones again: in Russian this god is called "Mountains". In Russian the sound of "Gkh" is transmitted now ringing, and in the European it sounds closer to "X" (because of it now there was even a tendency in Russian to replace for about "X", as on more "correct" sounding though for our European partners the Russian versions of their names equally cut hearing though in though through "X"). Generally, such metamorphoses of soundings for the linguist and the philologist Tolkien – daily bread. How do you think why in Tolkien's heritage the mention meets that the name Aragorn is formed from more ancient (certainly within LOTR Universe) and the glukhozvuchashchy Aracorno form? It is transparent sending to ancient Latin in which "G" has been formed of "C", by means of addition of a stick below since to 3 in BC "C" also meant sounds and "To". For me personally it is one more confirmation that in Aragorn names of gods of Ra and Gore sit. Especially in the general context it is already obvious that Aragorn this quite Egyptian name of the Pharaoh "Ra Gor" (with high probability appeared as a result of Alistair Crowley's works).
In addition there is one more small overlapping in favor of communication Aragorn-Hores: according to the Ancient Egyptian myth by Mountains, after the 80th summer lawsuit for recognition of Osiris by his only competent heir, in court of gods receives his kingdom, and Aragorn has ascended to a throne approximately with the same period - he from the moment of the birth participated in fight for a throne and at the age of 87 years as the only heir-at-law Isildura, has received the kingdom.
According to its Gold Hores name, Aragorn will be approximately such: Gold Hores Ra.
To complete the picture we prepare a name Elessar. Tolkien's interpretation "an elfin stone" some insufficiently imperial.
And it is valid, again we will look at Ancient Egypt: at conformable Elessara of the Pharaoh Ramesses (in English Ramesses or Rameses), the name consists of Ra-mes-es the son Ra. Then Elessar will break up by analogy to El-es-Ra: why it "ра" I have shown "are" above and which such "uniform" ("The One") of LOTR, one of names of which I have already shown to El too. Such reading of Elessar is absolutely correct as in the Egyptian mythology to Semitic Elu / Il there corresponds god Ptakh (Pta). The short quote "Ptakh is an ultraboundary Creator, his name seldom occurs in ritual texts of pyramids (god Ra appears in them), but is often used as a part of Ancient Egyptian names. In one name (Birds) god's inoprirodnost to the world of people, in another was esteemed (Ра) — an edinoprirodnost, eclectically expressing a thought that the person is at the same time involved to both divine life and terrestrial." End of the quote.
So, Aragorn's titulatura:
Elessar Telkontar Aragorn Arathorn Envinyatar's son, the King of the Reunited Kingdom, in transposition on Ancient Egyptian terms, in a sequence of names of the Pharaoh, sounds approximately so:
Son of the God Falcon-Ra Blessed by Two Empresses of Ptakh-Ra Golden Hores-Ra The King of the Integrated Two Kingdoms Honsu Hapis.
Time to pass to the most important and that very big rarity, to the incontestable proof of "the Egyptian version" has come.
For a start we will look at schedules of terms of government of Kings of Arnor and Gondor: on Arnora the schedule obviously artificial, the bulk of terms of board about 80 years, with separate splashes, it is obvious to coordination with other events of LOTR.
Such schedule it is also possible to wait from the excellent linguist and the pedant, but, after all, for the person with humanitarian thinking: Tolkien to details and polysemies studied aspects of languages, names and names, but you shouldn't expect from him imitation of natural-historical character of terms of board obviously (compare, for example, to the schedule of terms of government of tsars of Judea or Israel). But here for Gondor the picture strikingly differs: the schedule practically doesn't contain horizontal sites of equal height though on it there are abnormal splashes demonstrating the adjustment similar to the arnorsky schedule too. What can it be?
In Gondor, from the moment of the victory over Sauron (and 32 kings and 26 Deputies (certainly if to exclude from calculations repeated return to a throne of the overthrown king Eldakar and deputies who were at the time of kings) were the end of the 2nd era) before Return of the King Elessar.
Isildur since his father Elendil was the Supreme King, being in Arnor was the first King of Gondor, and Isildur and his brother were co-governors in Gondor under the power of the father. These 58 governors operated Gondor almost all Third Era, for 3000 years. These figures from history of Egypt remind something to me … We will return in 30 of the 20th century: in 1932 in the neighborhood of Memphis archeologists on a cover of a basalt sarcophagus have found the list of Pharaohs of the VI dynasty, not especially informative because of bad safety, this find called "A stone from the Southern Sakkara" (him incorrectly call "the Sakkarsky list"), he has revived the interest of rather general public in his "elder brother". Namely, to the list of Pharaohs of several dynasties found "somewhere at Dzhosser's pyramid" in a tomb of the architect Ramesses the Second Tunari for 70 years earlier.
This "the Sakkarsky list", has much better remained, though has been built from eight pieces, at the same time a part of information has been lost. This list plays a large role both at Egyptologists, and at different "alternative researchers", by the way, if you want to potrollit the last (and it is possible also some incompetent Egyptologists) ask to show you the image of this list. I guarantee that will show you the processed reproduction of the drawing of 1864 from the original "placed in the Cairo museum at number CG 34516", but not the photo since the only rather available picture of an artifact has been taken 160 years ago and you won't find her in Russian Internet. I, certainly, will show it to you.
Кстати, если вы посмотрите на фото, на прорисовку по фото и на репродукцию самого первого рисунка 1864г в сравнении с современной версией рисунка, то поймете, что последний явно формирует у неспециалиста некорректное представление о форме и объеме этого списка. Например, самый первый рисунок, сделанный археологической экспедицией, в рамках отчета об открытии (которое вообще говоря, было сделано в 1860г, но официальный отчет был опубликован только в 1864, вместе с этим рисунком), не говоря уж о фотографии, не содержит в правом верхнем углу списка ничего читаемого (а этот картуш, замечу, трактуется как Рамсес Второй), а на среднем обломке есть еще много других отлично сохранившихся иероглифов, и, вообще говоря, неочевидно, сколько было утрачено картушей с именами фараонов на разрушенных фрагментах.
Кстати, крайне не рекомендую пользоваться в этом вопросе Википедией и т.п. В русской версии Википедии какие-то деятели умудрились перепутать нумерацию на рисунке и соответствующие им имена фараонов – при переводе с английской вики, зачем-то криво добавили иероглифы к расшифровке имен фараонов (как говорится, «дурак опасен своей инициативой»).
The English Wiki at least warns that their drawing "on a basis" original drawings and a photo. As far as I remember, the Egyptian artifacts need, usually, to be considered from right to left and from below up. And "the Sakkarsky list" is made in an obratnokhronologichesky order and is read from right to left and from top to down. Including therefore, "the Sakkarsky list" has generated a set of scientific and pseudoscientific hypotheses. For example, the Russian scientist-Encyclopaedist of the beginning 20v, Nikolay Morozov who has released from a gin bottle of "New Chronology" considered it the lunar calendar. But traditional researchers agree on the version that on him names of Pharaohs, since 3000 years BC are represented: from the Pharaoh of the first dynasty of Adzhiba ruling Egypt together with Ankhur – the governor of the North of Egypt, to the greatest (well or, at least, the most known) the Pharaoh Ramesses the Second ruling Egypt 3000 years ago.
I think, you have already guessed what in "the Sakkarsky list" of 58 Pharaohs, exactly, as well as at Tolkien of governors in Gondor from Isildur to Denethor II? The modern science has almost twice expanded the list of Pharaohs of the period of "the Sakkarsky list" as acts of one Pharaoh often were results of actions of several Pharaohs with a little remained names. To the contrary, existence of some Pharaohs is called into question with all that it implies – anyway to us the scientific truth isn't important, we look only at that on how many there corresponds the list of governors of Gondor to the level of knowledge of "the Sakkarsky list" of times of writing of LOTR. Characteristics of Pharaohs and governors of Gondor don't coincide literally, but if to take practically any of governors, then it will turn out that someone from Pharaohs, with close serial number, has considerable similarity in a name or events.
Not literal compliance, I think, it is caused by the fact that I used the modern level of knowledge of Pharaohs whose part of acts during the time which has passed since the time of Tolkien has been specified and redistributed between the next Pharaohs. I have attached the table (at the following https://Excellentricks.ru updating I, whenever possible, will insert it into the text of article - because of the large volume of data very boringly to adjust it to a website template) with characteristics of governors and Pharaohs: proceeding from comparisons of characteristics they go consecutive groups with some shifts most likely connected with fillings of the lost fragments of "the Sakkarsky list". Probably, Tolkien used work of the Egyptologist the unknown to me who was investigating "the Sakkarsky list" and filling gaps with "the comparative analysis".
In lists of governors and Pharaohs strips of the peace and military periods, monumental construction (the most striking example – Argonat and Elefantin's Pillars), disorders because of marriage of the governor with the woman from "the lowest race", invasion of "people on vehicles" coincide and giksos on chariots, changes of dynasties, near Kastamir Uzurpator there is Tamftis who was considered as the usurper in Egyptology of the beginning of 20 century, etc. According to one of versions of the beginning of 20 century, 58 Pharaohs of "the Sakkarsky list" are predecessors of Ramesses the Second, and he isn't included in this list. This version seems to me plausible for the banal reason: in the photo on the place where according to modern Egyptologists Ramesses the Second cartouche – a blank space settles down, only the small piece has escaped. In this sense, at Tolkien then the list of governors of Gondor of the 3rd Era is reflected, up to the king Elessar, "the glory of which has endured his era", i.e. on the importance to Elessar ideally there corresponds Ramesses II. And the list of governors of Gondor, corresponds to the version LOTR existing in time of writing about 59 (58+ Ramesses II) Pharaohs in "the Sakkarsky list".
But, as, now on the last place include Ramesses the Second in the list of 58 Pharaohs, in order to avoid charges of "an alternative istoritsizm" I shift lists on 1 governor so that Ramesses II has been compared with Aragorn of II. By the way, at the same time the sequences of faithful names, and events lay down at each other much more precisely: and Aragorn's importance corresponds to Ramesses's importance in the Egyptian history (and El-ess-Ar is obviously conformable Ra-Mess-es), and Isildur who has left comparison, strictly speaking, was rather a king of the United Kingdom, but not one Gondor: all this in addition testifies in favor of logicality of shift of the list "on 1". That is, through coincidence of the list of governors of Gondor to "the Sakkarsky list" of Pharaohs, the African Egyptian and bible version finally is confirmed.
Finally, we will count rings: their total number causes nedoumeniye:3+7+9+1=20 – some it "not magic", certainly for those who it is minimum "in a subject", here 21 or as a last resort 19 … What is the matter? Can that 4 gnomy rings have been destroyed by dragons? Though 3+3+9+1=16 again "not that"... Really again some riddle hint? We will arrange rings as emergence in the header poem of LOTR - it will turn out 3 7 9 1 – there can be this four-digit number? To understand that the humanist can cipher in numbers, it is necessary to think how the humanist: we will break in pairs and we will rearrange in places – and we will see … 1937 is a year of the beginning of work on "Lord of the Rings". Here and the answer why in defiance of all traditions, Tolkien has such "ugly" quantity of the magic rings connected among themselves.
Well and by tradition I will offer one more couple of versions. It is possible to make of these figures 1397 BC is a year when, повинуясь to a prophetic dream, the Ancient Egyptian tsarevitch has ordered to clear away the Sphinx from sands and, in an award, soon after that I became the Pharaoh THUTMOSE of IV.
But I am imposed more by the following version: having arranged a ring on increase, we will receive 1379, it if to speak about antiquities, it is possible to compare with 1379 BC – times … Ramesses the Second who according to modern data, has ascended to a throne in 1279 BC in the 27th day of the third month of a season to shy – it means: "in the last days of the third month beginning from the beginning of February", i.e. around May 1st – day of a crowning of Aragorn. If this version is right (on what it indicates coincidence of dates of ascensions a throne) or years of reign of Ramesses since the time of Tolkien were corrected (by the Egyptian dates there was a much bigger disparate earlier), or Tolkien was shortchanged, or in LOTR initially at elves only 2 rings – and upon and was were planned: from elves only Elrond and Galadriel owned rings, the third, for some reason, elves have given to the magician Gandalf (to much more powerful, than elves, to a being - the wisest of majors in additives armed with a magic staff) then we have exact hit in a year (and date) Ramesses Veliky's crownings – the end of April beginning of May, 1279 BC.
And what as a result? It turns out that, having finished LOTR, somewhat, till times which is considered bible the Pharaoh Ramesses the Second, Tolkien has allegorically restored the lost part of history, and not England, and the whole world! Here in what the true sense of his works therefore it also didn't begin to write continuations of LOTR consists, though I tried, it is probable for financial reasons, to write the book "New Shadow", but has thrown, according to him, without having wanted to spend forces for a fiction. At Professor as really great writer, had enough for it sense of proportion: and the world of Middle-earth has only benefited from it. Though, of course, I have played in civilization sense, LOTR, owing to the grandness, very negative role from the point of view of progress. Achievements in the technical sphere (which was so hated by Tolkin), in many respects depend on hobby for future engineers, scientists and inventors for science fiction. And a fantasy opposite to her, I think will argue nobody, reorients the children's romantic moods connected with flights of scientists to stars by spaceships on swimming of knights by the elfin ships under the star sky.
Fine literature and art, not always lead to fine actions: horrors of two world wars, were the investigations of the German imperialism and the nationalism which have grown from the German romanticism of the 19th century. Tolkien, most likely, consciously without planning (but, obviously, passionately wishing), I have skillfully returned the disguised bible and theological plots and the ideas to the modern world, together with the strongest with an anti-technogenic message, than I have strongly affected the direction of development of a modern civilization.
The video version of this article is on my YouTube channel in VIDEO: Tolkien's secrets of the Lord of the Rings.
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